香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #13 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:有給休暇としての年休

Updated: Nov 13, 2019


雇用条例第41AA条

年休(annual leave)は、有給休暇(paid leave)であり香港でも全ての労働者に法的に保障されている。有給休暇は、労使双方の雇用契約で取り決めることができるが、その際日本の労基法と同様に、法定基準は最低基準であり、それ以下は違法であり、無効となる。そして有給休暇とは、ここでは年休(annual leave)を指し、無給欠勤日(unpaied leave:この概念は無断欠勤との区別が欠勤理由によりされるべきである)、法定休日(reguratory holiday: 週1日の休日)や公的祝日休暇(public holiday)とは別の概念である。

注意

ただし、香港の休日概念は複雑なので、有給休暇を年休(annual leave)の意味で使う場合と、労働者が雇用期間3ヶ月を満了すると取得できる有給休暇としての年12日の公的祝日休暇を指す場合がある。ここでは、有給休暇のうち、年休を指す。(註1)

これらをいかに最低限度あるいはそれ以下にして労働コストを下げた分、つまり搾取率が上がれば上がるほど、その分人事部の評価になる仕組みである以上、労働者側は尚更これらの概念についておろそかにはできない。労働法について知らされなければ、権利行使もないからである。実は、権利行使がなければ、労働問題として統計上はカウントされない。統計上は問題なしとなる。

雇用条例第41AA条

41AA.

Annual leave

(1)

Subject to this Part, every employee who has been in employment under a continuous contract for not less than 12 months shall, in respect of each leave year, be entitled to paid leave (in this Part referred to as annual leave) calculated in accordance with subsection (2).

(2)

Where an employee has been in employment under a continuous contract for a period specified in column (1) of the Table to this section, the amount of annual leave to which he shall be entitled in respect of any leave year in that period shall be the number of days specified in column (2) of such Table in respect of the period.

(3)

Subject to subsection (5)(c), times at which annual leave is granted shall be determined by the employer after consultation with the employee concerned or his representatives.

(4)

An employer shall give an employee not less than 14 days’ notice in writing of the time he has determined for the grant of a period of annual leave, except where a shorter period of notice is agreed to by the employer and employee.

(5)

Annual leave to which an employee is entitled—

(a)

shall be granted by his employer and be taken by the employee within the period of 12 months beginning immediately after the expiration of the leave year to which it relates;

(b)

subject to paragraph (c), shall be for an unbroken period; and

(c)

subject to subsection (9), shall, if the employee so requests his employer, be divided as follows—

(i)

where the leave entitlement does not exceed 10 days, it shall be granted on consecutive days except that not more than 3 days of the period of leave may be granted on any day or days (whether consecutive or not); and

(ii)

where such entitlement exceeds 10 days, 7 days of the period of leave shall be granted on consecutive days and the remaining leave may be granted on any day or days (whether consecutive or not).

(6)

If a rest day or holiday falls within any period of annual leave granted in accordance with this section, it shall be counted as annual leave and another rest day or holiday shall be substituted in accordance with section 18(5) or section 39(2), (2A), (3) or (4), as the case may require.

(Amended 137 of 1997 s. 5)

(7)

No period of total incapacity for work by reason of sickness or injury occurring during a period of annual leave shall count as part of that annual leave unless it commences after the commencement of the period of annual leave.

(8)

Where—

(a)

an employer continues to employ an employee after the expiration of a period during which annual leave should have been granted to him and the employer has not granted that leave, then at the option of the employee but subject to paragraph (b) the employer shall (whether or not proceedings have been taken for an offence under section 63(4)(e))—

(i)

pay to the employee, in addition to any pay due to him, compensation equal in amount to the annual leave pay which he would have received had the leave been granted so as to end on the expiration of the period during which it should have been granted; or

(ii)

grant the employee paid leave equal to the leave which should have been granted;

(b)

an employee opts under paragraph (a) to take paid leave, he shall take the leave on such day or days as may be agreed to by the employer and him or, if there is no such agreement, as shall be specified by the employer.

(9)

Where—

(a)

an employer proposes to close down his business or part thereof for the purpose of granting annual leave to any of his employees; and

(b)

notice of the proposed close down is duly given under section 41F; and

(c)

such close down will not result in any person who has been in employment in the business under a continuous contract for 12 months or more having to take annual leave on fewer consecutive days than—

(i)

where his leave entitlement does not exceed 10 days, the number of consecutive days’ leave that would be required to be granted under subsection (5)(c)(i) were his leave being divided under that subsection;

(ii)

7 days where his leave entitlement exceeds 10 days,

then nothing in this section shall prevent or restrict, or be construed as preventing or restricting, the close down.

(10)

For the avoidance of doubt it is declared that annual leave is, and shall be granted, in addition to the rest days, holidays, maternity leave and paternity leave to which an employee is entitled under this Ordinance.

(Amended 21 of 2014 s. 12)

Table

(1)

(2)

Number of days’ annual leave for a leave year ending—

Period of employment

in the part of 1990 beginning on the coming into operation of this Table and ending on the following 31 December

in 1991

in 1992

in 1993

in 1994 or in any subsequent year

At least 1 year but less than 3 years

7

At least 3 years but less than 4 years

8

At least 4 years but less than 5 years

9

At least 5 years but less than 6 years

10

At least 6 years but less than 7 years

11

At least 7 years but less than 8 years

12

At least 8 years but less than 9 years

13

At least 9 years

14

(Added 53 of 1990 s. 2)

有給休暇(年休)の計算方法 

労働者は、勤務してから満12ヶ月で、有給休暇である年休を取得できる。この年休は勤務年数の長さに応じて、初年の7日から14日間まで増える。

要するに、試用期間後、1、2年目は毎年7日であり、以降は、9年目の14日まで増加していく。では、雇用期間が、2年半で、その半年間に有給休暇はあるのか?日数はどうなるか?

雇用条例第41D(2)条で計算すると、雇い止めでも契約終了の7日までには最終雇用期の日数を365日における同一の比率で計算し、支給しなければならない。(註2)

勤務3カ月を経た後で、有給休暇を消化させずに、解雇、雇い止めをすることに対しての問題意識がある。また、勤務3カ月以降辞職した場合も、百分率により年休の賃金を取得できる。

この年休の計算方法では、もし1日に満たない労働日が出てしまう場合は、1日として計算する法理が確定している。

また、この計算から年休時の取得額を除外する。

雇用条例第41D条

41D.

Payment of annual leave pay on cesser of employment

(1)

Where—

(a)

an employee ceases to be employed; and

(b)

annual leave is due to him,

the person by whom he was formerly employed shall, as soon as practicable and in any case not later than 7 days after such cesser, pay to him in respect of the annual leave compensation equal in amount to the annual leave pay he would have received had the leave so due been granted immediately after such cesser.

(2)

Where—

(a)

an employee ceases to be employed;

(b)

the cesser occurs otherwise than on the expiration of a leave year of the employee;

(c)

his contract of employment terminates or is terminated otherwise than under section 9 for any reason whatsoever (including his resignation); and

(d)

the termination occurs at least 3 months after the appropriate day,

he shall, as soon as practicable and in any case not later than 7 days after the termination, be paid by the person by whom he was formerly employed, in addition to any sum due under subsection (1), a sum equal in amount to that which bears to the notional leave pay the same proportion as the number of days in the final employment period bears to 365.

(Replaced 53 of 1990 s. 3)

有給休暇(年休)の適用を阻害する解雇、雇い止め

この問題には、上記の他に、第41A条で仮定休暇期間給与の規定があり、上記の例で2年を経て、さらに2年目の半年までで解雇や雇い止めにあって有給休暇取得が阻害される場合、この条項では2年目の次の年、つまり3年(その年8日の有給休暇)で計算する。(註3)

41A.

Definitions (Part VIIIA)

In this Part, in relation to an employee—

appropriate day (適用日) means—

(a)

where the employee becomes entitled under section 41F(3) to any annual leave, the first day of the close down as regards which the entitlement arises or where he becomes so entitled more than once in any period of 12 months, the first day of the more or most recent, as appropriate, of such close downs; or

(b)

where the employee does not become so entitled—

(i)

the day following the end of the employee’s last (or only) leave year; or

(ii)

where there is no such leave year, the day on which his employment commenced;

final employment period (最終僱傭期) means the period beginning on the appropriate day and ending on the termination of his employment;

leave year (假期年), unless the context otherwise requires, means any period of 12 months—

(Amended 61 of 1993 s. 6)

(a)

commencing on—

(i)

in case the employee is entitled under section 41F(3) to any annual leave, the first day of the close down as regards which the entitlement arose; or

(ii)

in the case of any other employee, the day on which his employment commenced; or

(b)

commencing on an anniversary of such day;

notional leave pay (假定假期薪酬) means an amount equal to the annual leave pay which would have been due to the employee had his contract of employment terminated, or been terminated, on the appropriate day’s anniversary next following such contract’s actual termination and had that pay been calculated in accordance with section 41C.

(Amended 7 of 2007 s. 13)

(Replaced 53 of 1990 s. 2)

有給休暇(年休)の計算に報酬やチップは含まれるか?

雇用条例第41C条で、有給休暇の給与計算は基本給のみを計算するのは違法である。もし、労働者が何らかの労働に対する報酬やチップの収入があれば計算に含める。これを言い換えると、労働者が休暇期間中に報酬やチップを稼いでいなくても、給与計算は休暇以前の過去十二ヶ月の平均的な1日の賃金を手当として支払う。ここでも条例の法定の範囲以外では労使双方の協議の結果が優先されるし、法定外では労働者が争っても負けるリスクがある。(註3)

雇用条例第41C条

41C.Rate of annual leave pay

(1)For the purposes of subsections (2), (3) and (4), wages (工資) includes any sum paid by an employer in respect of—(a)a day of maternity leave, a day of paternity leave, a rest day, a sickness day, a holiday or a day of annual leave taken by the employee; (Amended 21 of 2014 s. 13)(b)a day of leave taken by the employee with the agreement of his employer;(c)a normal working day on which the employee is not provided with work;(d)a day of absence from work of the employee due to temporary incapacity for which compensation is payable under section 10 of the Employees’ Compensation Ordinance (Cap. 282).(2)The daily rate of annual leave pay is a sum equivalent to the daily average of the wages earned by the employee during—(a)the period of 12 months immediately before the day of annual leave, the first day of the annual leave or the date of termination of the contract of employment (as appropriate); or(b)if the employee has been employed by the employer concerned for a period shorter than 12 months immediately before the day of annual leave, the first day of the annual leave or the date of termination of the contract (as appropriate), the shorter period.(3)In calculating the daily average of the wages earned by an employee during the period of 12 months or the shorter period—(a)any period therein for which the employee was not paid his wages or full wages by reason of—(i)any maternity leave, paternity leave, rest day, sickness day, holiday or annual leave taken by the employee; (Amended 21 of 2014 s. 13)(ii)any leave taken by the employee with the agreement of his employer;(iii)his not being provided by his employer with work on any normal working day; or(iv)his absence from work due to temporary incapacity for which compensation is payable under section 10 of the Employees’ Compensation Ordinance (Cap. 282); and(b)any wages paid to him for the period referred to in paragraph (a), are to be disregarded.(4)For the avoidance of doubt, if the amount of the wages paid to an employee in respect of a day specified in subsection (1) is only a fraction of the amount earned by the employee on a normal working day, the wages and the day are to be disregarded in accordance with subsection (3).(5)Despite subsection (2), if for any reason it is impracticable to calculate the daily average of the wages earned by an employee in the manner provided in that subsection, the amount may be calculated by reference to the wages earned by a person who was employed at the same work by the same employer during the period of 12 months immediately before the employee’s day of annual leave, the first day of his annual leave or the date of termination of his contract of employment (as appropriate), or, if there is no such person, by a person who was employed in the same trade or occupation and at the same work in the same district during the period of 12 months immediately before the employee’s day of annual leave, the first day of his annual leave or the date of termination of his contract of employment (as appropriate).(6)If, pursuant to the terms of his contract of employment or any other agreement or for any other reason, an employee is paid by his employer a sum of money in respect of a day of annual leave taken by him, the annual leave pay payable to the employee in respect of that day of annual leave is to be reduced by the sum.(Replaced 7 of 2007 s. 14)

判例法理:Kwan Siu Wa Becky and others v Cathay Pacific Airways Limited (CACV 92/2010)

この判例法理では、高等法院の上訴審は航空会社を例にとりグラウンド手当、アウトポート手当、航空線手当、免税品販売コミッションなどの手当をスチュワーデスの年休や有給休暇の給与計算に含めないことを違法とし、基本給だけでなく上記の諸手当も含めて計算することを命じた。これにより、法理として確立した。(註4)

Notes

1.See the article of the Labor Act Law of Hong Kong.
2. See the www.labour.gov.hk.
3. See 41C.
4.See the Hong Kong Case Law.Com.

香港労働問題研究全論考30章

(以下リンクより各論考へ)

...................................................

香港労働Hong Kong Labor Issues #1 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:香港と日本の労働環境の基本的差異と労使紛争時の注意事項

香港労働Hong Kong Labor Issues #2 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:労働者をフリーランスとして雇用する手口に注意!

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #3 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:派遣労働法制のない派遣労働は派遣労働以上の複合的問題をも孕む

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #4 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:香港での賃金の定義とは何か?求人詐欺の給与詐術について

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #5 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:即時解雇(懲戒解雇)の規定

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #6 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:理由なき解雇、金銭解雇の天国?

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #7 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:金銭解雇の天国、理由なき解雇の問題についての詳論

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #8 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:違法解雇から補償を勝ち取るための推定解雇の法理とは?

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #9 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:賃金からの控除の合法性の問題

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #10 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:ダブルペイ、年末報酬、ボーナスの支給の確実性について

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #11 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:任意のボーナスか?それとも条件ありのボーナスか?

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #12 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:成功報酬の類も雇用の福利計算に入れるか?

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #13 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:有給休暇としての年休

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #14 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:年休は契約解除時の通知期間に含められるか?

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #15 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:資本家は労働者が毎年当年の年休を消化することを規定できるか?

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #16 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:日雇い労働者の福利はどうなるか?雇用条例最大の落とし穴418ルール

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #17 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:日本の労働者は如何にこのネオリベラリズム社会の労働問題に挑むべきか?事業閉鎖に伴う遺散費とは?

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #18 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:労働災害(労災)が起きた場合、在港労働者はどうなるのか?

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #19 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:司法審査、労働審判及び本裁判の概論

香港労働Hong Kong Labor Issues #20 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:ストライキと経営陣の報復、そして政治利用

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #21 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:労働裁判上の偏見及びその他の上訴のシチュエーション

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #22 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:労働審判を司る労資審裁所の司法管轄権について

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #23 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:労働訴訟の費用問題について

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #24 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:労資審裁所の審議に出廷できるのは誰か?

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #25 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:誰でも分かる雇用条例の要点

香港労働 Hong Kong Labor Issues #26 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:時効問題について

香港労働Hong kong Labor Issues #27 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:休日、公休、年休など休日概念の混同

香港労働Hong Kong Labor Issues #28 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:休日の概念と休日の補償について

香港労働Hong Kong Labor Issues #29 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:多重派遣と同様の雇用主不明の問題

香港労働Hong Kong Labor Issues #30 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:紛争の2大領域としての合法性、合理性と労使関係の制約について

香港で労使紛争に遭った場合の基礎的な注意事項

1、もし、雇用主と労働条件で労使紛争が起きた場合、直ぐに衝動的に書面や口頭で雇用契約を終了しないこと。当然、香港の人事部はマネージメントの追随及び人事の事務処理代行の域をでない低劣さが顕著なので、まずは、労働組合や労働問題の経験ある弁護士に一定期間相談するべきである。その上でも終了はいつでもできる。人材会社の連中は、日本同様労働問題の相談相手ではない。連中は、広告主である企業の人事部の意向と方便しか一面的に顧みない。

2、もし、雇用主に解雇された場合、いかなる文書にもサインしないこと。また、何かにサインする前に、自身に不利ではないかまず内容をよく見ること。不明な点は、質問しはっきりさせ、解答が不明瞭ならばサインは拒否するべきである。つまり、理解できないものは拒否すること。下劣な香港マネージメントは手口としてあからさまな詐欺を働く場合もあり、それはサイン無効として追究する道を開く。ここで、重要なのは、サインした全ての公式、非公式の文書はコピーを要求する権利があり、コピーを渡さないならばサインしないことである。このような卑猥な資本主義の犬に屈するくらいならばサインや合意を破棄するべきである。その方が労働者の精神的利害及び社会的契約上の権利の実現と言える。日本の求人詐欺の手口は基本的に香港でも存在している。多くの多国籍企業のアジア太平洋地区の本部は香港であり、人事部が実は香港という大企業も少なくない。手口自体の共通性はここから来ている。

3、紙媒体か電子媒体かを問わず、全ての企業関連の文書を保存すること。これは、雇用契約書から、就業証明、給与支払報告書、税報告書、解雇通知書などを含み、その後労働者の受けるべき権益を要求する基礎になる。

4、労組としては理想形態ではないが、香港の信頼できる最大の労働組合連合である工聯会に相談すること。相談窓口は、以下の連絡先がある。労働組合は、労働者の社会的な団結の具体的な組織形態であり、法的には労働者の団結の存在形態とは労働組合である。そして、それは現地の労働者たちの知の集積庫でもある。

電話:3652-5888

Eメール:labour@flu.org.hk

Web:www.flu.org.hk 

References

1.《勞資審裁處條例》https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap25!zh-Hant-HK

2. 香港法例第57章《僱傭條例》僱傭保障Q&A http://www.labour.gov.hk/tc/faq/cap57k_whole.htm

3.勞資審裁處表格 http://www.judiciary.hk/tc/crt_services/forms/labour.htm

4.勞資審裁處條例 https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap25!en

5.工聯會The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Union http://www.ftu.org.hk/zh-hant/rights?id=89

6. 第338章 《小額錢債審裁處條例》https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap338

7.Cap. 347 LIMITATION ORDINANCE https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap347!en?INDEX_CS=N

8.Cap. 149 General Holidays Ordinance https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap149

9.判例集 https://www.elegislation.gov.hk

雇用条例の全文は、以下の二つのリンクが有用である。日本語は、準備予定である。

English: https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap57

Chinese:https://www.labour.gov.hk/tc/public/ConciseGuide.htm

Image Source: Kinopoisk.ru

Statements

This series of articles about HK labor issues is written by Japanese due to supporting Japanese workers in Hong Kong where differs from Japanese working environment. Moreover, there is no labor consultant for Japanese workers in Hong Kong while facing blood sucking Japanese recruit agents and overseas Japanese 'Black Kigyo' (Evil Companies).  

Any part of this report may be disseminated without permission, provided attribution to Ryota Nakanishi as author and a link to www.ryotanakanishi.com is provided.

注意:香港には、日本人のための労働相談所はない。また、総じて労働問題対策の出版物は皆無に等しい。日本語だけでは、極めて危険な状態である。香港でも会社の人事部、就職エージェントや企業の人事コンサルタントなどはすべて行為において資本家側であり、自分たちも労働者であるのに、むしろ労働者と敵対するので、要注意だ。会社外の労組へ相談するべきだ。香港では日本人で労働問題を論じている者がいないと言うことはできない。私は永久に労働者階級のために階級闘争を戦う。階級闘争とは、労働者の階級的利害のための一切の社会的な闘いである。



Ryota Nakanishi's Hong Kong labor law knowledge was qualified by professional examination (Practice) by HKFTU in 2019.

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