香港労働法 Hong Kong Labor Issues #60 日本人のための香港労働問題研究:雇用条例 (Employment Ordinance) VC-VIA:日本語版

#Translation

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FILE PHOTO: Working at a bike shop © WiX

香港雇用条例 日本語翻訳版


【原文】


Part VC Supplementary Provisions to Parts VA and VB

(Part VC added 52 of 1988 s. 14. Format changes—E.R. 3 of 2017)


*31ZF. Re-employment after retirement at a specified age

(1) Subject to subsection (2), where a continuous contract of employment specifies an age of retirement and— (a) the employee retires at that age; and (b) the employee has been employed under that contract for not less than 5 years of service ending at the relevant date; and (Amended 74 of 1997 s. 14) (c) he receives in relation to the years of service in respect of which long service payment would have been payable, had the employee been dismissed at the relevant date,— (i) by virtue of the terms of his contract of employment, any gratuity based upon length of service; or (ii) by virtue of a retirement scheme, any payment thereunder ; and (d) the total sum he receives under paragraph (c) is not less than the long service payment to which he would have been entitled had he been dismissed at the relevant date; and (e) immediately after his retirement, the employee is re-employed by the person by whom he was employed immediately before his retirement, then for the purposes of Parts VA and VB of this Ordinance, the employment after retirement shall be regarded as a fresh employment. (2) For the purposes of subsection (1), any reference therein to a retirement scheme payment shall not include that part, if any, of the payment which represents a return of an employee’s own contributions, including any sum payable in respect of interest thereon. (Amended 41 of 1990 s. 16)

Editorial Note: * The operation of this section is affected by the transitional provisions contained in s. 31ZG.


31ZG. Transitional

The amendment made by section 14 of the Employment (Amendment) (No. 2) Ordinance 1997 (74 of 1997) to section 31ZF shall not affect employees who retired before the commencement* of that amendment; and the provisions of section 31ZF as they read immediately before such commencement shall continue to apply as regards such employees as if it had not been so amended. (Added 74 of 1997 s. 15)

Editorial Note: * Commencement date: 27 June 1998.


Part VIA Employment Protection

(Part VIA added 75 of 1997 s. 4. Format changes—E.R. 3 of 2017)


32A. Employee’s entitlement to employment protection

(1) An employee may be granted remedies against his employer under this Part— (a) where he has been employed under a continuous contract for a period of not less than 24 months ending with the relevant date and he is dismissed by the employer because the employer intends to extinguish or reduce any right, benefit or protection conferred or to be conferred upon the employee by this Ordinance; (b) where he is employed under a continuous contract and the employer, without his consent and, in the absence of an express term in his contract of employment which so permits, varies the terms of his contract of employment because the employer intends to extinguish or reduce any right, benefit or protection conferred or to be conferred upon the employee by this Ordinance; or (c) where he is dismissed by the employer other than for a valid reason within the meaning of section 32Kand in contravention of— (i) section 15(1), 21B(2)(b), 33(4B) or 72B(1); (ii) section 6 of the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (Cap. 59); or (iii) section 48 of the Employees’ Compensation Ordinance (Cap. 282), whether or not the employer has been convicted of an offence in respect of the dismissal. (2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(a), an employee who has been dismissed by the employer shall, unless a valid reason is shown for that dismissal within the meaning of section 32K, be taken to have been so dismissed because the employer intends to extinguish or reduce any right, benefit or protection conferred or to be conferred upon the employee by this Ordinance. (3) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b), the variation of the terms of the contract of employment by the employer as referred to in that subsection shall, unless a valid reason is shown for that variation within the meaning of section 32K, be taken to be a variation of the terms of the contract of employment by the employer by reason that the employer intends to extinguish or reduce any right, benefit or protection conferred or to be conferred upon the employee by this Ordinance. (4) For the purposes of subsection (1)(c)— (a) it shall not be necessary for an employee to show in relation to— (i) subsection (1)(c)(i), that his contract of employment was terminated by reason of his exercising any of the rights vested in an employee by or by virtue of section 21B(1) or by reason of the fact of his doing any of the things mentioned in section 72B(1); (ii) subsection (1)(c)(ii), that his contract of employment was terminated by reason of the fact of his doing any of the things mentioned in section 6 of the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (Cap. 59); and (b) an employee who has been dismissed by the employer shall be taken to have been dismissed without a valid reason unless a valid reason is shown for that dismissal within the meaning of section 32K. (5) For the purposes of subsection (1)(c), an employee shall be entitled to remedies under this Part if and only if— (a) in relation to a dismissal in contravention of section 21B(2)(b), the employee has exercised any of the rights mentioned in section 21B(1) within a period of 12 months immediately preceding such dismissal by the employer; (b) in relation to a dismissal in contravention of section 72B(1), the employee has done any of the things mentioned in that section within a period of 12 months immediately preceding such dismissal by the employer; (c) in relation to a dismissal in contravention of section 6 of the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (Cap. 59), the employee has done any of the things mentioned in that section within a period of 12 months immediately preceding such dismissal by the employer.


32B. Dismissal by employer

(1) For the purposes of section 32A(1)(a) and subject to this Part, where an employee is dismissed because the employer intends to extinguish or reduce his right to a severance payment or to a long service payment, he shall be taken to be dismissed by his employer if, but only if— (a) the contract under which he is employed is terminated by the employer with or without notice or payment in lieu otherwise than in accordance with section 9; (b) where under that contract he is employed for a fixed term, that term expires without being renewed under the same contract; or (c) the employee terminates that contract with or without notice or payment in lieu, in circumstances such that he is entitled to terminate it without notice or payment in lieu in accordance with section 10 by reason of the employer’s conduct. (2) Subject to subsection (1), an employee shall be taken for the purposes of section 32A(1)(a) and (c) to be dismissed by his employer when the contract under which he is employed is terminated by the employer with or without notice or payment in lieu otherwise than in accordance with section 9. (3) An employee shall not be taken for the purposes of section 32A(1)(a) to be dismissed by his employer if— (a) his contract of employment is renewed, or he is re-engaged by the same employer under a new contract of employment; and (b) the renewal or re-engagement takes effect immediately on the ending of his employment under the previous contract. (4) For the purposes of the application of subsection (3) to a contract under which the employment ends on a rest day or holiday, the renewal or re-engagement shall be treated as taking effect immediately on the ending of the employment under the previous contract if it takes effect on or before the next day after that rest day or holiday.


32C. General exclusions from right to remedies

(1) An employee shall not be entitled to remedies under this Part if, not less than 7 days before the relevant date, the employer has offered to renew his contract of employment, or to re-engage him under a new contract so that— (a) the provisions of the contract as renewed, or of the new contract, as the case may be, would not differ from the corresponding provisions of the contract as in force immediately before the dismissal; and (b) the renewal or re-engagement would take effect on or before the relevant date, and the employee has unreasonably refused that offer. (2) An employee shall not be entitled to remedies under this Part if, not less than 7 days before the relevant date, the employer has made to him an offer in writing to renew his contract of employment, or to re-engage him under a new contract, so that in accordance with the particulars specified in the offer the provisions of the contract as renewed, or of the new contract, as the case may be, would differ, wholly or in part, from the corresponding provisions of the contract as in force immediately before the dismissal, but— (a) the offer constitutes an offer of suitable employment in relation to the employee; (b) the offer constitutes an offer of employment no less favourable to the employee than hitherto; and (c) the renewal or re-engagement would take effect on or before the relevant date, and the employee has unreasonably refused that offer. (3) Where the relevant date falls on a rest day or holiday, the references in subsections (1)(b) and (2)(c) to the relevant date shall be construed as references to the next day after that rest day or holiday. (4) An employee shall not be entitled to remedies under this Part by reason of dismissal where, having been given notice of the termination of his contract of employment by his employer in accordance with section 6, he leaves the service of his employer before the expiration of that notice unless he so leaves— (a) with the prior consent of the employer; or (b) after having made a payment in lieu to the employer in accordance with section 7. (5) Subsections (1) to (3) shall not apply where an employee is dismissed in any of the circumstances mentioned in section 32A(1)(c).


32D. Change of ownership of business

(1) This section shall have effect where— (a) a change occurs (whether by virtue of a sale or other disposition or by operation of law) in the ownership of a business for the purposes of which a person is employed, or of a part of such a business; and (b) in connection with that change the person by whom the employee is employed immediately before the change occurs (in this section referred to as the previous owner) terminates the employee’s contract in accordance with section 6 or 7. (2) If, by agreement with the employee, the person who immediately after the change occurs is the owner of the business or of the part of the business in question, as the case may be (in this section referred to as the new owner), renews the employee’s contract of employment (with the substitution of the new owner for the previous owner) or re-engages him under a new contract of employment,section 32B(3) shall have effect as if the renewal or re-engagement had been a renewal or re-engagement by the previous owner (without any substitution of the new owner for the previous owner). (3) If the new owner offers to renew the employee’s contract of employment (with the substitution of the new owner for the previous owner) or to re-engage him under a new contract of employment, but the employee refuses the offer, section 32C(1) or (2) (as the case may be) shall have effect, subject to subsection (4), in relation to that offer and refusal as it would have had effect in relation to the like offer made by the previous owner and a refusal of that offer by the employee. (4) For the purposes of the operation, in accordance with subsection (3), of section 32C(1) or (2) in relation to an offer made by the new owner— (a) the offer shall not be treated as one whereby the provisions of the contract as renewed, or of the new contract, as the case may be, would differ from the corresponding provisions of the contract as in force immediately before the dismissal by reason only that the new owner would be substituted for the previous owner as the employer; and (b) no account shall be taken of that substitution in determining whether the refusal of the offer was unreasonable. (5) This section shall have effect (subject to the necessary modifications) in relation to a case where— (a) the person by whom a business, or part of a business, is owned immediately before a change is one of the persons by whom (whether as partners, trustees or otherwise) it is owned immediately after the change; or (b) the persons by whom a business, or part of a business, is owned immediately before a change (whether as partners, trustees or otherwise) include the person or one or more of the persons by whom it is owned immediately after the change, as this section has effect where the previous owner and the new owner are wholly different persons. (6) Nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring any variation of a contract of employment by agreement between the parties to be treated as constituting a termination of the contract.


32E. Associated companies

(1) Where the employer is a company, any reference in section 32B, 32C or 32D to renewal or re-engagement by the employer shall be construed as a reference to renewal or re-engagement by that company or by any associated company, and any reference in section 32B, 32C or 32D to an offer made by the employer shall be construed as including a reference to an offer made by an associated company. (2) Subsection (1) shall not affect the operation of section 32D in a case where the previous owner and the new owner are associated companies; and where that section applies, subsection (1) shall not apply. (3) For the purposes of this section, 2 companies shall be taken to be associated companies if one is a subsidiary of the other, or both are subsidiaries of a third company, and associated company shall be construed accordingly. (4) In this section—company (公司) has the meaning given by section 2(1) of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 622); subsidiary (附屬公司) has the meaning given by section 15 of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 622) for the purposes of that Ordinance. (Replaced 28 of 2012 ss. 912 & 920)


32F. Relevant date

For the purposes of and subject to this Part, relevant date (有關日期)— (a) in relation to the termination of employment of an employee, has the same meaning as in section 2(1); and (b) in relation to the employer varying the terms of the contract of employment of an employee, means the date on which that variation takes effect.


32G. Death of employer or employee

For the purposes of this Part, Part I of the Eighth Scheduleshall have effect in relation to the death of an employer and Part II of that Schedule shall have effect in relation to the death of an employee.


32H.

(Repealed 51 of 2000 s. 4)


32I. Claim for remedies

Notwithstanding anything in this Part, an employee shall not be entitled to remedies under this Part unless— (a) the employee has made a claim for such remedies by notice in writing given to the employer before the end of the period of 3 months beginning with the relevant date, or within such extended period not exceeding 6 months as the Commissioner may permit; or (b) a question as to the right of the employee to such remedies has been made the subject of a claim filed with the Registrar of the Labour Tribunal in accordance with Part 4 of the Labour Tribunal Ordinance (Cap. 25) before the end of the period of 9 months beginning with the relevant date. (Amended E.R. 1 of 2013)


32J. Jurisdiction of Labour Tribunal

(1) Subject to this section, the Labour Tribunal established under the Labour Tribunal Ordinance (Cap. 25) shall have jurisdiction to inquire into, hear and determine a claim made by an employee under this Part in accordance with this Part and with that Ordinance. (2) The Labour Tribunal does not have jurisdiction to inquire into, hear or determine a claim under this Part if the relevant date in respect of that claim falls more than 9 months before the date on which the claim is filed with the Registrar of the Labour Tribunal, unless the parties to the claim, by a memorandum signed by them and filed with the Registrar, have agreed that the Tribunal shall have jurisdiction. (Amended 21 of 2018 s. 3) (3) A claim under this Part over which the Labour Tribunal has jurisdiction may be transferred under section 10 of the Labour Tribunal Ordinance (Cap. 25) but may be so transferred only to the Court of First Instance or the District Court. (Replaced 21 of 2018 s. 3) (4) The Court of First Instance or the District Court may, for a claim so transferred to it, make all or any of the orders and awards provided for under sections 32N, 32O, 32P, 32PA and 32PC. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 3) (5) Apart from a transfer under subsection (3), neither the Court of First Instance nor the District Court has jurisdiction over a claim under this Part. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 3)


32K. Reasons for the dismissal or the variation of the terms of the contract of employment

For the purposes of this Part, it shall be a valid reason for the employer to show that the dismissal of the employee or the variation of the terms of the contract of employment with the employee was by the reason of— (a) the conduct of the employee; (b) the capability or qualifications of the employee for performing work of the kind which he was employed by the employer to do; (c) the redundancy of the employee or other genuine operational requirements of the business of the employer; (d) the fact that the employee or the employer or both of them would, in relation to the employment, be in contravention of the law, if the employee were to continue in the employment of the employer or, were to so continue without that variation of the terms of his contract of employment; or (e) any other reason of substance, which, in the opinion of the court or the Labour Tribunal, was sufficient cause to warrant the dismissal of the employee or the variation of the terms of that contract of employment.


32L. Determination of claim

(1) On a claim for remedies under this Part, in determining whether or not an employer has shown that he has a valid reason for the dismissal of an employee or for the variation of the terms of the contract of employment with an employee within the meaning of section 32K, the court or the Labour Tribunal shall take into consideration the circumstances of the claim. (2) Without affecting the generality of subsection (1), the circumstances of a claim include the length of time that the employee has been employed under that contract of employment with the employer as compared to the length of qualifying service required for the right, benefit or protection conferred or to be conferred upon the employee by this Ordinance which is capable of being extinguished or reduced by means of the dismissal or the variation of the terms of the contract of employment.


32M. Remedies for employment protection

(1) On a claim for remedies under this Part if the court or Labour Tribunal finds that the employer has not shown a valid reason as specified under section 32K, the employer is deemed to intend to extinguish or reduce any right, benefit or protection conferred or to be conferred upon the employee by this Ordinance and the dismissal or the variation is deemed to be unreasonable and the court or Labour Tribunal may make an order under section 32Nor an award of terminal payments under section 32O. (2) On a claim for remedies under this Part if, in relation to the dismissal of an employee in any of the circumstances mentioned in section 32A(1)(c), the court or Labour Tribunal finds that the employer has not shown a valid reason for that dismissal within the meaning of section 32K and, upon that finding the employer, after having been given an opportunity to do so, refuses or fails to show that the dismissal is not in contravention of— (a) section 15(1), 21B(2)(b), 33(4B) or 72B(1); (b) section 6 of the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (Cap. 59); or (c) section 48 of the Employees’ Compensation Ordinance (Cap. 282), then the court or Labour Tribunal may make an order under section 32N or an award of terminal payments under section 32O and, in the case where the court or Labour Tribunal does not make an order under section 32N, the court or Labour Tribunal may, whether or not it has made an award of terminal payments under section 32O, make an award of compensation under and in accordance with section 32P to be payable to the employee by the employer as it considers just and appropriate in the circumstances. (3) An order or award made under this Part shall not affect the civil or criminal liability of an employer otherwise than under this Part in respect of the dismissal or the variation of the terms of the contract of employment.


32N. Order for reinstatement and re-engagement

(1) Subject to this section and to section 32M, an order under this section may be an order for reinstatement (in accordance with subsections (4) and (5)) or an order for re-engagement (in accordance with subsections (6) and (7)) as the court or Labour Tribunal may decide and on terms which it considers just and appropriate in the circumstances. (2) The court or Labour Tribunal shall first consider whether to make an order for reinstatement, and if it decides not to make an order for reinstatement it shall then consider whether to make an order for re-engagement. (3) If the court or Labour Tribunal finds that an order for reinstatement or re-engagement is appropriate— (a) it must explain to the employer and the employee what order for reinstatement or re-engagement may be made; and (b) it must ask the employer and the employee whether they agree to the making of such an order. (Replaced 21 of 2018 s. 4) (3A) If the employer and the employee express agreement, the court or Labour Tribunal must make an order for reinstatement or re-engagement pursuant to the agreement. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 4) (3B) For a dismissal of an employee in any of the circumstances mentioned in section 32A(1)(c), even though only the employee expresses agreement, the court or Labour Tribunal must make an order for reinstatement or re-engagement if it finds that reinstatement or re-engagement of the employee by the employer is reasonably practicable. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 4) (3C) Before making a finding for the purposes of subsection (3B), the court or Labour Tribunal— (a) must give an opportunity to the employer and the employee to present each of their cases in respect of the making of an order for reinstatement or re-engagement; and (b) must take into account the circumstances of the claim, including— (i) the circumstances of the employer and of the employee; (ii) the circumstances surrounding the dismissal; (iii) any difficulty that the employer might face in the reinstatement or re-engagement of the employee; and (iv) the relationship between the employer and the employee, and between the employee and other persons with whom the employee has connection in relation to the employment. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 4) (3D) Before making a finding for the purposes of subsection (3B), the court or Labour Tribunal may, with the agreement of the employer and the employee, request the Commissioner to provide to it a report containing information that— (a) relates to the circumstances of the claim; and (b) was obtained in connection with the conciliation held under the Labour Tribunal Ordinance (Cap. 25). (Added 21 of 2018 s. 4) (3E) On receiving the request, the Commissioner must prepare the report, seek the agreement of the employer and the employee to the contents of the report and— (a) if the employer and the employee agree to the contents of the report—provide the report to the court or Labour Tribunal; or (b) if the employer or the employee fails to agree to the contents of the report—inform the court or Labour Tribunal of the failure and the fact that the report cannot be provided to it. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 4) (4) An order for reinstatement is an order that the employer shall treat the employee in all respects as if he had not been dismissed or as if there had been no such variation of the terms of the contract of employment. On making the order, the court or Labour Tribunal must specify the terms on which the employee must be reinstated, including— (Amended 21 of 2018 s. 4) (a) any rights and privileges, including seniority and pension rights, which must be restored to the employee; (b) a term to the effect that, for reckoning the employee’s existing and future entitlements under this Ordinance and the employee’s contract of employment, the continuity of the employee’s period of employment is not to be treated as broken by— (i) if the contract was terminated by the employer by payment in lieu of notice—the employee’s absence from work between the last date on which the employee rendered services to the employer and the date of reinstatement; or (ii) in any other case—the employee’s absence from work between the relevant date and the date of reinstatement; (Replaced 21 of 2018 s. 4) (c) the date by which the employee must be reinstated; and (Replaced 21 of 2018 s. 4) (d) a term to the effect that, if the employee is not reinstated on the terms specified in the order by the date so specified, the employer must pay to the employee the sums mentioned in section 32NA(1) by the date specified for that purpose in the order. (Replaced 21 of 2018 s. 4) (5) On the making of an order for reinstatement, if the court or Labour Tribunal considers just and appropriate in the circumstances, it may specify— (a) any amount payable by the employer to the employee in respect of any arrears of pay and statutory entitlements under this Ordinance which the employee might reasonably be expected to have had but for the dismissal or the variation of the terms of the contract of employment, for the period between the relevant date and the date of reinstatement; or (b) any amount to be restored by the employee to the employer in respect of any statutory entitlements that the employee has been paid by the employer under this Ordinance and that the employee should not have had upon reinstatement. (6) An order for re-engagement is an order that the employer must re-engage the employee in an employment on terms comparable to his original terms of the employment or in other suitable employment. On making the order, the court or Labour Tribunal must specify the terms on which the employee must be re-engaged, including—(Amended 21 of 2018 s. 4) (a) (Repealed 21 of 2018 s. 4) (b) the nature of the employment; (c) the remuneration for the employment; (d) any rights and privileges, including seniority and pension rights, which must be restored to the employee; (e) a term to the effect that, for reckoning the employee’s existing and future entitlements under this Ordinance and the employee’s contract of employment, the continuity of the employee’s period of employment is not to be treated as broken by— (i) if the contract was terminated by the employer by payment in lieu of notice—the employee’s absence from work between the last date on which the employee rendered services to the employer and the date of re-engagement; or (ii) in any other case—the employee’s absence from work between the relevant date and the date of re-engagement; (Replaced 21 of 2018 s. 4) (f) the date by which the employee must be re-engaged; and (Replaced 21 of 2018 s. 4) (g) a term to the effect that, if the employee is not re-engaged on the terms specified in the order by the date so specified, the employer must pay to the employee the sums mentioned in section 32NA(1) by the date specified for that purpose in the order. (Replaced 21 of 2018 s. 4) (7) On the making of an order for re-engagement, if the court or Labour Tribunal considers just and appropriate in the circumstances, it may specify— (a) any amount payable by the employer to the employee in respect of any arrears of pay and statutory entitlements under this Ordinance which the employee might reasonably be expected to have had but for the dismissal or the variation of the terms of the contract of employment, for the period between the relevant date and the date of re-engagement; or (b) any amount to be restored by the employee to the employer in respect of any statutory entitlements that the employee has been paid by the employer under this Ordinance and that the employee should not have had upon re-engagement. (8) (Repealed 21 of 2018 s. 4) (9) This section has effect subject to sections 32PA, 32PB and 32PC. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 4) (10) If the employer pays the sums mentioned in section 32NA(1) by the date specified for that purpose in an order for reinstatement or re-engagement (as varied under section 32PA or 32PC, if applicable), the employee is not entitled to enforce the other terms of the order (as so varied, if applicable). (Added 21 of 2018 s. 4)


32NA. Sums specified for purposes of section 32N(4)(d) and (6)(g)

(1) For the purposes of section 32N(4)(d) and (6)(g), the following sums are payable by the employer to the employee— (a) the sums that would have been awarded if neither an order for reinstatement nor an order for re-engagement had been made, namely— (i) the amount of terminal payments that would have been awarded under section 32O; and (ii) if the employee has been dismissed in any of the circumstances mentioned in section 32A(1)(c)—the amount of compensation that would have been awarded under section 32P; and (b) if the employee has been dismissed in any of the circumstances mentioned in section 32A(1)(c), a sum that is the lesser of the following— (i) $72,500; (ii) 3 times the employee’s average monthly wages as calculated in accordance with section 32NB. (2) In determining the amounts mentioned in subsection (1)(a)(i) and (ii), the court or Labour Tribunal must not take into account the sum mentioned in subsection (1)(b). (3) The Commissioner may, by notice published in the Gazette, amend subsection (1)(b)(i) by substituting another amount for the amount specified in that subsection. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 5)


32NB. Calculation of average monthly wages for section 32NA

(1) This section applies in calculating an employee’s average monthly wages for the purposes of section 32NA(1)(b)(ii). (2) In subsections (3), (4) and (5)— wages (工資) includes a sum of money paid by an employer in respect of any of the following days—(a) a day of maternity leave, a day of paternity leave, a rest day, a sickness day, a holiday or a day of annual leave taken by the employee; (b) a day of leave taken by the employee with the agreement of the employer; (c) a normal working day on which the employee is not provided with work by the employer; (d) a day of absence from work of the employee due to temporary incapacity for which compensation is payable under section 10 of the Employees’ Compensation Ordinance (Cap. 282). (3) The employee’s average monthly wages are the average monthly wages earned by the employee during— (a) the period of 12 months immediately before the date of termination of the contract of employment; or (b) if the employee has been employed by the employer for a period shorter than 12 months immediately before the date of termination of the contract of employment—the shorter period. (4) The average monthly wages are to be calculated without regard to— (a) any period (excluded period) during the 12-month period or shorter period for which the employee was not paid wages or full wages because of— (i) any maternity leave, paternity leave, rest day, sickness day, holiday or annual leave taken by the employee; (ii) any leave taken by the employee with the agreement of the employer; (iii) the employee’s not being provided with work by the employer on a normal working day; or (iv) the employee’s absence from work due to temporary incapacity for which compensation is payable under section 10 of the Employees’ Compensation Ordinance (Cap. 282); and (b) any wages paid to the employee for the excluded period. (5) To avoid doubt, if the amount of the wages paid to an employee in respect of a day covered by the definition of wages in subsection (2) is only a fraction of the amount earned by the employee on a normal working day, the employee’s average monthly wages are to be calculated without regard to the wages and the day. (6) Despite subsection (3), if for any reason it is impracticable to calculate an employee’s average monthly wages in the manner provided in that subsection, the amount may be calculated by reference to— (a) the wages earned by a person who was employed at the same work by the same employer during the period of 12 months immediately before the date of termination of the employee’s contract of employment; or (b) if there is no such person—the wages earned by a person who was employed in the same trade or occupation and at the same work in the same district during the period of 12 months immediately before the date of termination of the employee’s contract of employment. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 5)


32O. Award of terminal payments

(1) Subject to section 32M, if no order for reinstatement or re-engagement is made under section 32N, the court or Labour Tribunal may make an award of terminal payments to be payable by the employer to the employee as it considers just and appropriate in the circumstances. (2) Terminal payments under this section refer to the statutory entitlements under this Ordinance that the employee has not been paid and that the employee is entitled to upon the termination of the contract of employment, or that he might reasonably be expected to be entitled to upon the termination of the contract of employment had he been allowed to continue with his original employment or original terms of the contract of employment to attain the minimum qualifying length of service required for the entitlements under this Ordinance. (3) Subject to subsection (4), terminal payments include— (a) any wages and other payments due to the employee under his contract of employment; (b) any payment in lieu of notice payable under Part II, in the case of a dismissal without due notice; (c) any end of year payment payable under Part IIA; (d) any maternity leave pay or sum payable under Part III; (da) any paternity leave pay payable under Part IIIA; (Added 21 of 2014 s. 7) (e) any severance payment payable under Part VA or any long service payment payable under Part VB; (f) any sickness allowance or sum payable under Part VII; (g) any holiday pay payable under Part VIII; (h) any annual leave pay payable under Part VIIIA; and (i) any other payments due to the employee under this Ordinance and under his contract of employment. (4) Notwithstanding that the employee has not attained the qualifying length of service required for the entitlements under this Ordinance, the court or Labour Tribunal may make an award for terminal payments under subsection (1) or (5) which shall be reckoned according to the actual length of time that the employee has been employed under that contract of employment with the employer. (5) For the purposes of this section, where no order for reinstatement or re-engagement is made for an unreasonable variation of the terms of the contract of employment, the court or Labour Tribunal may treat the unreasonable variation of the terms of the contract of employment as an unreasonable dismissal by the employer and make an award for terminal payments and such terminal payments should be calculated up to the last date on which the employee renders services to the employer or the date on which an award of terminal payments under this section is made by the court or Labour Tribunal, whichever is the earlier. (6) The respective provisions governing the calculation of the statutory entitlements shall apply to the calculation of the terminal payments. (Amended 21 of 2018 s. 6) (7) Sections 31I and 31IA shall apply to any severance payment paid under this section. (8) Sections 31Y, 31YAA and 31YA shall apply to any long service payment paid under this section.


32P. Award of compensation

(1) Subject to section 32M, the court or Labour Tribunal may, whether or not it has made an award of terminal payments under section 32O, make an award of compensation to be payable to the employee by the employer as it considers just and appropriate in the circumstances, if— (a) neither order for reinstatement nor order for re-engagement under section 32N is made; and (b) the employee is dismissed by the employer in contravention of section 15(1), 21B(2)(b), 33(4B) or 72B(1), section 6 of the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (Cap. 59), or section 48 of the Employees’ Compensation Ordinance (Cap. 282), whether or not the employer has been convicted of the offence in respect of the dismissal. (2) In determining an award of compensation and the amount of the award of compensation under this section, the court or Labour Tribunal shall take into account the circumstances of the claim. (3) Without affecting the generality of subsection (2) the circumstances of a claim include— (a) the circumstances of the employer and the employee; (b) the length of time that the employee has been employed under the contract of employment with the employer; (c) the manner in which the dismissal took place; (d) any loss sustained by the employee which is attributable to the dismissal; (e) possibility of the employee obtaining new employment; (f) any contributory fault borne by the employee; and (g) any payments that the employee is entitled to receive in respect of the dismissal under this Ordinance, including any award of terminal payments under section 32O. (4) The amount of an award of compensation under this section shall be such amount as the court or Labour Tribunal considers just and appropriate but no such award shall exceed an amount of $150,000. (5) The Commissioner for Labour may amend the amount specified in subsection (4) by notice in the Gazette.


32PA. Alternative compliance with order for re-engagement

(1) For the purposes of this section— (a) order for re-engagement (再次聘用的命令) means an order for re-engagement made under section 32Nand includes such an order as varied under this section or section 32PC; (b) successor (繼承人), in relation to an employer who employed an employee for the purposes of an undertaking or part of an undertaking, means (subject to paragraph (c)) a person who, in consequence of a change in the ownership of that undertaking or part (whether the change occurred by virtue of a sale or other disposition or by operation of law), has become the owner of that undertaking or part; (c) the definition of successor in paragraph (b) has effect (subject to the necessary modifications) in relation to a case where— (i) the person who owned an undertaking or part of an undertaking immediately before a change is one of the persons who own it immediately after the change (whether as partners, trustees or otherwise); or (ii) the persons who owned an undertaking or part of an undertaking immediately before a change (whether as partners, trustees or otherwise) include the persons, or one or more of the persons, who own it immediately after the change, as it has effect where the previous owner and the new owner are wholly different persons; and (d) associated company is to be construed in accordance with section 32E(3) and (4). (2) If the court or Labour Tribunal made an order for re-engagement (principal order) against an employer (original employer), it may, on application, order variation of the principal order to the effect that engagement of the employee by a successor or associated company of the original employer (alternative employer) is to be treated as re-engagement by the original employer in compliance with the principal order. (3) An application for the purposes of subsection (2) may only be made if— (a) there is a written agreement among— (i) the original employer; (ii) the employee; and (iii) the alternative employer; (b) the agreement states the parties’ agreement that engagement of the employee by the alternative employer is to be treated as re-engagement in compliance with the principal order; (c) the agreement states the terms on which the alternative employer is to engage the employee in order for the engagement to be treated as re-engagement in compliance with the principal order, including— (i) the nature of the employment; (ii) the remuneration for the employment; (iii) any rights and privileges, including seniority and pension rights, that must be given to the employee; (iv) a term to the effect that the employee’s period of employment with the original employer is to be counted as a period of employment of the employee with the alternative employer for reckoning the employee’s existing and future entitlements under this Ordinance and the employee’s contract of employment with the alternative employer; and (v) a term to the effect that the continuity of the employee’s period of employment— (A) is not to be treated as broken by the change of employer from the original employer to the alternative employer; and (B) is not to be treated as broken by— (I) if the employee’s contract of employment with the original employer was terminated by the original employer by payment in lieu of notice—the employee’s absence from work between the last date on which the employee rendered services to the original employer and the date of engagement of the employee by the alternative employer; or (II) in any other case—the employee’s absence from work between the relevant date and the date of engagement of the employee by the alternative employer; and (d) the agreement states that the parties agree that, if the alternative employer engages the employee, the terms mentioned in paragraph (c) are to form part of the employee’s contract of employment with the alternative employer. (4) The application may only be made by the employee, and must be accompanied by the agreement or a copy of the agreement. (5) The application may only be made— (a) not later than the date by which the employee must be re-engaged under the principal order; or (b) within such extended time as may be allowed by the court or Labour Tribunal. (6) An order of variation may only be made under this section if the court or Labour Tribunal is satisfied that the terms on which the alternative employer is to engage the employee, as specified in the agreement, are comparable to the terms on which the original employer is to re-engage the employee under the principal order, except the terms mentioned in section 32N(6)(f) and (g). (7) An order of variation made in relation to an application under this section— (a) must specify that, in order for the engagement to be treated as re-engagement in compliance with the principal order, the alternative employer must engage the employee on the terms specified in the agreement by the date specified for that purpose in the order of variation; (b) must specify the legal consequences following from the alternative employer engaging the employee, as provided under section 32PB; (c) must specify that, subject to paragraphs (a) and (b), the principal order remains in full force and the original employer must re-engage the employee, except that the date by which the employee must be re-engaged by the original employer is also the date mentioned in paragraph (a); and (d) must specify that the original employer must pay to the employee the sums mentioned in section 32NA(1)by the date specified for that purpose in the order of variation if, by the date mentioned in paragraph (a), the employee is not re-engaged in accordance with the order (which means neither actually so re-engaged nor treated as so re-engaged). (8) Each of the following dates as specified under subsection (7) in an order of variation may be the same as or different from that date as specified in the principal order— (a) the date by which the employee must be engaged; (b) the date by which the original employer must pay the sums mentioned in section 32NA(1). (Added 21 of 2018 s. 7)


32PB. Legal consequences following from alternative employer engaging employee

(1) This section applies if— (a) an order of variation is made under section 32PA to the effect that engagement of the employee by the alternative employer is to be treated as re-engagement by the original employer in compliance with the principal order; and (b) the alternative employer engages the employee on or before the date by which the employee must be re-engaged, as specified in the order of variation, and an expression in this section that also appears in section 32PA has the same meaning as it has in that section. (2) The terms on which the alternative employer is to engage the employee, as specified under section 32PA(7)(a) in the order of variation, form part of the employee’s contract of employment with the alternative employer. (3) The following applies for reckoning the employee’s existing and future entitlements under this Ordinance and the employee’s contract of employment with the alternative employer— (a) the employee’s period of employment with the original employer is to be counted as a period of employment of the employee with the alternative employer; and (b) the continuity of the employee’s period of employment— (i) is not to be treated as broken by the change of employer from the original employer to the alternative employer; and (ii) is not to be treated as broken by— (A) if the employee’s contract of employment with the original employer was terminated by the original employer by payment in lieu of notice—the employee’s absence from work between the last date on which the employee rendered services to the original employer and the date of engagement of the employee by the alternative employer; or (B) in any other case—the employee’s absence from work between the relevant date and the date of engagement of the employee by the alternative employer. (4) In subsection (3)(a), a reference to the employee’s period of employment with the original employer is a reference to the period of employment of the employee with the original employer that, had the original employer re-engaged the employee in accordance with the principal order, would have been counted for reckoning the employee’s existing and future entitlements under this Ordinance and the employee’s contract of employment with the original employer. (5) The engagement of the employee by the alternative employer is treated as re-engagement by the original employer in compliance with the principal order. (6) Any amount specified under section 32N(7) in the principal order as payable by the employer to the employee remains payable by the original employer to the employee. Any amount specified under that section in that order as required to be restored by the employee to the employer remains required to be restored by the employee to the original employer. (7) For calculating an amount specified in the principal order under section 32N(7), references in the principal order to re-engagement and to the date of re-engagement are respectively treated as references to the engagement of the employee by the alternative employer and to the date of the engagement. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 7)


32PC. Relief from paying sum mentioned in section 32NA(1)(b)

(1) This section applies if an order for reinstatement or re-engagement is made under section 32N in respect of an employee dismissed in any of the circumstances mentioned in section 32A(1)(c), whether or not the order is varied under this section or section 32PA (which order (as so varied, if applicable) is referred to in this section as the principal order ). (2) The employer against whom the principal order is made may apply for it to be varied to the effect that the employer is relieved from the liability to pay the sum mentioned in section 32NA(1)(b). (3) An application under subsection (2) may only be made on the ground that it is no longer reasonably practicable for the employer to reinstate or re-engage the employee in accordance with the principal order— (a) because of reasons attributable to the employee; or (b) because, since the court or Labour Tribunal last found that reinstatement or re-engagement of the employee is reasonably practicable, a change of circumstances has occurred beyond the employer’s control. (4) The application may only be made to the court, or the Labour Tribunal, that made the principal order. (5) The application may only be made— (a) not later than 7 days after the date by which the employee must be reinstated or re-engaged under the principal order; or (b) within such extended time as may be allowed by the court or Labour Tribunal. (6) Before determining the application, the court or Labour Tribunal must give an opportunity to the employer and the employee to present each of their cases in respect of the application. (7) In determining the application, the court or Labour Tribunal may take into account any relevant considerations. (8) The court or Labour Tribunal may— (a) refuse the application; (b) order that the principal order be varied to the effect that the employer be relieved, wholly or partly, from the liability to pay the sum mentioned in section 32NA(1)(b); or (c) make any order that it considers just and appropriate in the circumstances, including specifying a later date as the date by which the employee must be reinstated or re-engaged. (Added 21 of 2018 s. 8)


32Q. Exclusion

This Part shall not apply to acts of— (a) sex discrimination within the meaning of the Sex Discrimination Ordinance (Cap. 480); (b) discrimination against persons on the ground of their or their associates’ disability within the meaning of the Disability Discrimination Ordinance (Cap. 487); (Amended 7 of 2001 s. 7) (c) discrimination against persons on the ground of family status within the meaning of the Family Status Discrimination Ordinance (Cap. 527); or (Added 7 of 2001 s. 7. Amended 29 of 2008 s. 87) (d) discrimination against a person on the ground of the race of the person or his or her near relative within the meaning of the Race Discrimination Ordinance (Cap. 602). (Added 29 of 2008 s. 87)



【日本語】


パートVC: パートVAおよびVBへの附則


(1988年に第52号第14条により、VCを追加した。 フォーマットの変更 - 2017年編集者改訂記録第3号)


* 31ZF. 所定の年齢で退職した後の再雇用の要件


(1) 第(2)項に従い、継続契約に特定の退職年齢が設定されている場合、および

(a) 従業員がその年齢で退職した場合。

(b) 従業員がその契約に基づいて雇用されている場合、関連する日の終わりにおける勤続年数が5年以上であること、および(1997年に第74号第14条で改正)

(c) 従業員が該当日に解雇された場合は、勤続年数に応じた長期服務金を受給する権利を有し、その従業員が

(i) 雇用契約の条件により、勤続年数に応じた謝礼を受け取っている場合。

(ii) 退職金制度のおかげで、その制度に基づく支払いを受けている場合。

(d) (c)に基づいて従業員が受け取る総額が、該当日に解雇されていた場合に従業員が受けることができたであろう長期服務金を下回らないこと。

(e) 退職直後に、退職直前に自分を雇用していた者に再雇用された従業員。

その場合、退職後の雇用は、本条例のパートVAおよびVBの目的上、新たな雇用として扱われる。

(2) 第(1)項の目的上、退職金制度の支払いに関する言及には、従業員自身の拠出金がある場合にはその返還、およびその拠出金にかかる利息は含まれないものとする。

(1990年に第41号第16条で改正)


編集者への注意事項


* 本節の運用は、第31ZG条に含まれる経過規定の影響を受ける。


31ZG. 経過規定


雇用(改正)(No.2)条例1997(1997年第74号)第14条による雇用条例(Cap.57)第31ZF条の改正は、当該改正の開始前に退職した従業員には影響せず*、第31ZF条の規定は、当該改正がなかったかのように、当該改正の開始直前の状態にある当該従業員に引き続き適用されるものとする。第31ZF条の規定は、その改正の開始直前の状態にある当該従業員に対して、同節の改正がなかったものとして引き続き適用される。

(1997年に第74号第15条を追加)


編集者への注意事項


* 施行日:1998年6月27日


PART VIA 雇用保護


(1997年に第75号第4条でVIAを追加。 形式の変更 - 編集上の修正の記録2017年No.3)


32A. 従業員の雇用保護の権利


(1) 被雇用者は、以下の場合、本編に基づいて、その雇用主に対して救済措置を受けることができる。

(a) 従業員が関連日の終わりに24カ月以上の継続的な契約に基づいて雇用されており、雇用主が、本条例によって従業員に与えられた、または与えられる予定の権利、利益、または保護を消滅させ、または削減しようとしたために、従業員が解雇された場合。

(b) 被雇用者が継続的な契約に基づいて雇用されており、雇用主が、被雇用者の同意なしに、また被雇用者の雇用契約に雇用契約条件の変更を許可する明示的な条項がなく、この条例によって被雇用者に付与された、または付与される予定の権利、利益または保護を消滅または減少させることを意図して、雇用契約条件を変更した場合、または

(c) 被雇用者が、第32K条に基づく正当な理由に反して、雇用者によって解雇された場合。

(i) 第15(1)、21B(2)(b)、33(4B)または72B(1)条;

(ii) 工場及び工業経営条例(Cap.59)第6条、または;

(iii) 僱員補償条例(Cap.282)の第48条。

雇用主が解雇に関する有罪判決を受けたかどうか。

(2) 第(1)(a)項の目的上、従業員が雇用主によって解雇された場合、解雇が第32K条にいう正当な理由によるものである証明がなされない限り、従業員は、雇用主が、本条例によって従業員に与えられた、または与えられるべき権利、利益または保護が消滅または減少することを意図して、そのように解雇されたとみなされるものとする。

(3) 第(1)(b)項の目的上、同項で言及されている雇用主による雇用契約条件の変更は、その変更が第32K条の意味における適切な理由によるものであることが証明されない限り、雇用主が本条例によって被雇用者に付与された、または付与される予定の権利、利益または保護を消滅または減少させることを提案しているため、雇用主による雇用契約条件の変更とみなされる。

(4) (1)(c)の目的のために--。

(a) 従業員...

(i) 第1(c)(i)項の目的のために、彼の雇用契約が、第21B(1)条により、もしくはその効力により従業員に与えられた権利を彼が行使したこと、または第72B(1)条に記載されていることのいずれかを彼が行ったことによって終了したことを証明する必要はない。

(ii) 第(1)(c)(ii)項の目的のために、彼の雇用契約が、彼が工場及び工業経営条例(Cap. 59)の第6条に記載された何かを行ったことを理由に解除されたことを証明する必要がないこと。

(b) 従業員がその雇用主によって解雇された場合、その解雇が第32K条の意味における正当な理由によるものであることが証明されない限り、その従業員は正当な理由なく解雇されたものとみなされる。

(5) 第(1)(c)項の目的のために、従業員は以下の場合にのみ、本編に基づく救済措置を受ける権利を有する。

(a) 第21B(2)(b)条に反して行われた解雇の場合、従業員が、雇用主による解雇に先立つ12カ月の期間に、第21B(1)条に記載された権利のいずれかを行使したこと。

(b) 第72B(1)条に反して行われた解雇の場合、従業員が、雇用主による解雇に先立つ12カ月間に同条に記載された何かを行ったこと。

(c) 工場及び工業経営条例 (Cap.59)の第6条に反して行われた解雇の場合、従業員が雇用主による解雇に先立つ12カ月間に同節に記載された何かを行ったこと。


32B. 雇用主による解雇


(1) 第32A(1)(a)条の目的のために、本編に従って、従業員は、以下の場合に、雇用主が長期服務金または遣散費の資格を消滅または削減することを意図しているために解雇された場合にのみ、雇用主によって解雇されたとみなされる。

(a) 雇用主が、通知または通知に代わる支払いがなされたか否かにかかわらず、第9条に従って被雇用者の雇用契約を解除しない場合。

(b) 従業員がその契約に基づいて期間を定めて雇用され、その期間の満了後に同じ契約によって更新されない場合。[雇い止め]

(c) 従業員が、使用者の行為を理由に、第10条に基づき、通知または通知に代わる支払いなしに、契約を解除する権利を有する場合、通知または通知に代わる支払いの有無を問わない。

(2) 第(1)項に従い、被雇用者の雇用主が第9条以外の方法で被雇用者の雇用契約を終了させた場合(通知または通知に代わる支払いが行われたか否かを問わない)、第32A(1)(a)および(c)条の目的上、被雇用者は雇用主によって解雇されたものとみなされる。

(3) 以下の場合、従業員は、第32A(1)(a)条の目的上、雇用主によって解雇されたとはみなされない。

(a) 被雇用者の雇用契約が更新されたか、または被雇用者が新たな雇用契約に基づいて同じ雇用主に再雇用された場合。

(b) 更新または再契約が、直前の契約に基づく雇用の終了時に有効であること。

(4) 休業日または休日に終了する雇用契約に適用される第(3)項の目的上、更新または再契約が休業日または休日の翌日以前に発効する場合、更新または再契約は、直前の契約に基づく雇用の終了時に発効するとみなされる。


32C. 救済措置を受ける権利の一般的免除


(1) 関連する日の7日前の期間の開始前に、雇用主が従業員に雇用契約の更新または新たな契約での再雇用の申し出をした場合であって

(a) 更新された契約または新しい契約(場合によっては)の規定は、従業員の解雇直前に有効であった契約の対応する規定と同じであること。

(b) 更新または再契約が関連する日付またはそれ以前に発効すること。

その場合、従業員がその申し出を不合理に拒否しても、本編に基づく救済措置を受ける権利はない。

(2) 関連する日の7日前の期間の開始前に、使用者が従業員に対して書面で雇用契約の更新または新たな契約に基づいて再雇用することを申し出ており、その申し出に明記された内容に従って、更新された契約または新たな契約(場合によっては)の規定が、従業員の解雇の直前に有効であった契約の対応する規定と全部または一部異なる場合であっても --

(a) その申し出が、従業員に関して雇用に適した申し出である場合。

(b) その申し出が、先の申し出よりも従業員に不利にならない雇用の申し出であること。

(c) 更新または再契約が、関連する日付またはそれ以前に発効すること。

その場合、従業員がその申し出を不合理に拒否しても、本編に基づく救済措置を受ける権利はない。

(3) 関連する日が休息日または休日に当たる場合、(1)(b)および(2)(c)における関連する日への言及は、その休息日または休日の次の日への言及と解釈される。

(4) 第6条に従って使用者が被雇用者に与えた解雇通知の満了前に被雇用者が離職する場合、被雇用者は以下の場合を除き、離職してはならない。

(a) 従業員の離職が雇用主の事前の同意を得ている場合。

(b) 被雇用者が離職前に、第7条に従って通知の代わりとなる支払いを雇用主に支払っていること。

そうでない場合、従業員は解雇に関して本編に基づく救済措置を受けることができない。

(5) 第32A(1)(c)条に記載された状況で従業員が解雇された場合、第(1)項から第(3)項は適用されない。


32D.ビジネスオーナーの変更


(1) 本節は、以下の事項に関して効力を有する。

(a) 人が雇用されている事業の全部または一部の所有権の変更(売却、その他の形での財産の処分、法律の運用によるものであるかどうかを問わない)、および

(b) 変更の結果、変更の直前に従業員を雇用していた者(本項では元所有者とする)が、第6または第7条に従って従業員の契約を解除する。

(2) 変更直後に事業または事業の一部(場合により)の所有者となった者(本項では新所有者とする)が、従業員との間で、従業員の雇用契約を(新所有者を旧所有者に代えて)更新するか、または新たな雇用契約に基づいて従業員を再雇用する契約を締結した場合、第32B(3)条は、その更新または再雇用が旧所有者によるものであるかのように効力を有する。 (3)新所有者が前所有者と交代していない場合、第32B(3)条は、更新または再契約が前所有者によって行われたかのように効力を有する。新所有者が(新所有者を旧所有者に代えて)従業員の雇用契約の更新を申し出、または新たな雇用契約に基づいて従業員を再雇用し、従業員がその申し出を拒否した場合、第(4)項に従い、第32C(1)または(2)条(場合により)は、申し出および拒否に関して、旧所有者および従業員が同一の申し出をしたかのように効力を有する。 第(1)項の目的のために、第(1)項に従った申し出と拒絶は、あたかも元の所有者によって行われたかのように効力を持つものとする。

(4) 新しい所有者に関して第(3)項に従って行われた申し出のために、第32C(1)または(2)条を適用する場合

(a) 申し出は、新所有者が旧所有者に代わって使用者となったという理由だけで、更新された契約または場合によっては新しい契約の条項を、解雇直前に有効であった契約の対応する条項と異なるものとして扱ってはならない。

(b) 申し出の拒絶が不合理であるかどうかを判断する際に、そのような代替を無視する。

(5) 本節は、必要な修正を加えた上で、以下の事項に関して効力を有する。

(a) 所有権の変更の直前に事業または事業の一部を所有していた人物が、変更の直後に事業または事業の一部を所有している人物の一人であること(パートナー、受託者、その他の立場であるかを問わない)、または

(b) 所有権変更の直前に事業または事業の一部を所有していた各人(パートナー、管財人、その他の立場であるかを問わない)で、変更直後に事業または事業の一部を所有している者、またはそのうちの1人または複数を含む。

そこで、前所有者と新所有者が全く異なる2人の人物であるかのような場合も効力を持つ。

(6) 本節のいかなる規定も、当事者の合意のもとに雇用契約を変更した場合に、その契約の終了として取り扱うことを要求するものではない。


32E. 関連会社


(1) 使用者が会社である場合、第32B条、第32C条または第32D条において、使用者による更新または再契約に言及することは、当該会社またはその関連会社による更新または再契約に言及することと解釈され、第32B条、第32C条または第32D条において、使用者による申し出に言及することは、その関連会社による申し出を含むものと解釈される。

(2) 前所有者と新所有者が関連会社である場合、第(1)項は第32D条の運用に影響を与えず、第32D条が適用される場合、第(1)項は適用されない。

(3) 本節では、2つの会社のうち一方が他方の子会社である場合、または2つの会社が第3の会社の子会社である場合、2つの会社は関連会社とみなされ、関連会社という用語はそれに応じて解釈される。

(4) 本条では--。

会社(公司)は、会社条例(Cap.622)の第2(1)条で与えられた意味を持つ。

子会社(附帯会社)は、会社条例(Cap.622)の第15条で与えられた意味を持つ。 (2012年に第28号第912及び920条に差し替え)


32F. 関連する日付


本編の目的上、本編に別段の定めがない限り、関連日(有關日期)--

(a) 雇用の終了に関するもの。

(a) 従業員の雇用の終了に関しては、第2(1)条と同じ意味を持つ。

(b) 雇用主が被雇用者の雇用契約の条件を変更することに関しては、その変更が有効になる日を意味する。


32G. 雇用主または被雇用者の死亡


このパートの目的のために、別表8のパートIは使用者の死亡に関して有効であり、同表のパートIIは被雇用者の死亡に関して有効である。


32H. (2000年に第51号第4条で廃止)


32I. 救済措置の請求


本編の規定にかかわらず、救済措置の請求は以下の場合には行われない。

(a) 関連日から始まる3カ月の期間の終了前、または登録機関が認める6カ月以内の延長期間内に、従業員が使用者への書面による通知により救済要求を行った場合、または

(b) 当該日から9ヵ月の期間が終了する前に、従業員の救済措置を受ける資格に関する問題が、労資審裁処条例(Cap.25)第4部に従って労資審裁処の登録官に提出された請求の対象となったこと。


そうでない場合、従業員は本編に基づく救済措置を受けることができない。

(編集上の修正 - 2013年の編集上の修正の記録No.1)


32J. 労資審裁処の管轄権


(1) 本項に従い、労資審裁処(Cap.25)に基づき設立された労資審裁処は、本編および同条例に従い、本編に基づき従業員が提起した請求を照会し、審理し、決定する権限を有する。

(2) 本編に基づく請求が労資審裁処の登録官に提出され、当該請求の関連日が請求の提出日から 9 ヶ月以上前である場合、労資審裁処は、請求の当事者が署名し登録官に提出した覚書により、当該請求について労資審裁処が調査、審問又は決定を行うことに同意しない限り、当該請求について調査、審問又は決定を行う権限を有しない。 (2018年に第21号第3条に差し替え)

(3) 労資審裁処が管轄権を有する本編に基づく請求は、労資審裁処(Cap.25)第10条に基づき移送することができるが、第一審裁判所または当該地方裁判所にのみ移送することができる。(2018年第21号第3条に差し替え)

(4) 第一審裁判所または地方裁判所は、前述のように移管された請求権に関して、第32N条、第32O条、第32P条、第32PA条および第32PC条に規定されている命令および裁定のすべてまたは一部を行うことができる。(2018年に第21号第3条で追加)

(5) 第一審裁判所及び地方裁判所は、(3)の規定による移送を除き、本編に基づく請求権について管轄権を有しない。(2018年に第21号第3条で追加)


32K. 解雇または雇用契約条件の変更の根拠


本編において、雇用主は、解雇または雇用契約の条件変更が以下の理由によるものであることを証明した場合、解雇または雇用契約の条件変更に正当な理由があるとする。

(a) 従業員の行動

(b) 従業員が使用者に雇用されている種類の仕事を行うための能力または資格

(c) 従業員が余剰人員整理の対象であるか、またはその他の方法で雇用主の事業運営に純粋に必要とされている場合。

(d) 従業員が雇用主に継続して雇用された場合、または雇用契約の条件が変更されなかった場合に継続して雇用された場合、従業員もしくは雇用主、またはその両方が、雇用に関する法律に違反するという事実、または

(e) 裁判所または労資審裁処が、従業員を解雇し、または雇用契約の条件を変更するのに十分な理由であるとみなす、その他の重要な理由。


32L. 請求内容の裁定


(1) 本編に基づく救済措置の請求がなされた場合、裁判所または労資審裁処は、従業員の解雇または従業員の雇用契約の条件の変更について、使用者が第32K条の意味における正当な理由を示したか否かを判断する際に、当該請求の状況を考慮しなければならない。

(2) 第(1)項の一般性を損なうことなく、請求の状況には、本条例により被雇用者に付与された、または付与されるべき権利、利益または保護に関連して必要とされる勤続年数に関連して、雇用契約に基づく被雇用者の雇用期間が含まれ、当該権利、利益または保護が、解雇または雇用契約の条件の変更により消滅または減少する可能性がある場合には、被雇用者の雇用期間は、本条例により被雇用者に付与された、または付与されるべき権利、利益または保護に関連して必要とされる勤続期間の長さである。 (b) 従業員の権利、利益、保護が、解雇や雇用契約条件の変更によって消滅または減少する可能性があること。


32M. 雇用保護のための救済措置


(1) 本編に基づく救済請求について、裁判所または労資審裁処が、使用者が第32K条に基づく正当な理由を示すことができなかったと判断した場合、使用者は、本条例により被雇用者に付与されたまたは付与されるべき権利、利益または保護が消滅または減少することを意図していたとみなされ、また、解雇または雇用契約の条件の変更が不合理であるとみなされ、裁判所または労資審裁処は、第32K条に基づき、解雇または雇用契約の条件の変更が不合理であるかどうかを判断することができる。 労資審裁処は、第32N条に基づく命令、または第32O条に基づく解雇手当を裁定することができる。

(2) 第32A(1)(c)条に記載されたいずれかの状況における従業員の解雇に関して、本編に基づき救済を求める請求がなされた場合、裁判所または労資審裁処は、使用者が解雇が第32K条にいう正当な理由によるものであることを証明できず、かつ、証明する機会が与えられたにもかかわらず、使用者が解雇が以下に反していないことを証明することを拒否または怠ったと判断する。 以下の規定

(a) 第15(1)、第21B(2)(b)、第33(4B)または第72B(1)条;

(b) 工場及び工業経営条例(Cap.59)第6条、または;

(c) 僱員補償条例(Cap.282)の第48条。

また、裁判所または労資審裁処が第32N条に基づく命令を下していない場合、裁判所または労資審裁処は、第32O条に基づく解雇手当を支給したか否かにかかわらず、状況に応じて正当かつ適切と考えられ、第32P条に基づき使用者が被雇用者に支払うべき補償金を決定することができる。

(3) 本編に基づく裁定は、第32P条に基づいて行われる。

(本編に基づく命令または裁定は、解雇または雇用契約条件の変更に関して、本編以外の規定に基づく使用者の民事責任または刑事責任に影響を与えない。)


32N. 復職および再雇用の命令


(1) 本節および第32M条に従い、本節に基づく命令は、裁判所または労資審裁処が状況において公正かつ適切であると判断する条件で、復職命令(第(4)および第(5)項に従って行われる)または再雇用命令(第(6)および第(7)項に従って行われる)とすることができる。

(2) 裁判所又は労資審裁処は、まず、復職命令を出すか否かを検討し、復職命令を出さないことを決定した場合には、再雇用命令を出すか否かを検討しなければならない。

(3) 裁判所又は労資審裁処が、復職又は再雇用に関する命令を行うことが適切であると判断した場合には、

(a) 裁判所または労資審裁処は、どのような復職命令または再雇用命令がなされうるかを使用者および被雇用者に説明しなければならない。

(b) 裁判所または労資審裁処は、使用者および被雇用者に対し、当該命令の制定に同意するか否かを尋ねなければならない。(2018年に第21号第4条に差し替え)

(3A) 使用者および被雇用者の双方が同意した場合、裁判所または労資審裁処は、その同意に基づいて復職または再雇用の命令を下すものとする。(2018年に第21号第4条で追加)

(3B) 第32A(1)(c)条に記載された状況で従業員が解雇された場合、裁判所または労資審裁処は、従業員のみが同意を与えたにもかかわらず、使用者が従業員を復職または再雇用することが合理的に可能であると認められる場合には、当該従業員の復職または再雇用に関する命令を行わなければならない。(2018年に第21号第4条で追加)

(3C) 第(3B)項の目的で裁定を行う前に、裁判所または労資審裁処は

(a) 雇用主と被雇用者に、復職または再雇用の命令に関連して、それぞれの主張を提示する機会を与えなければならない。

(b) 請求の状況を考慮しなければならない(以下を含む)。

(i) 雇用主と被雇用者の状況

(ii) 問題となった解雇の背景

(iii) 雇用主が従業員を復職または再雇用する際に遭遇する可能性のある困難。

(iv) 雇用主と被雇用者の関係、および雇用に関連して被雇用者に他の人物が関係している場合は、被雇用者とそれらの他の人物との関係。(2018年に第21号第4条で追加)

(3D) 裁判所又は労資審裁処は、第(3B)項を目的とする裁定を行う前に、雇用主及び被雇用者双方の同意を得て、登録機関に対し、以下のような情報を含む報告書を提出するよう要求することができる。

(a) 請求に関連する状況。

(b) 労資審裁処条例(Cap.25)に基づく調停に関連して取得されたもの。(2018年に第21号第4条で追加)

(3E) 登録機関は,そのような要請を受けた場合,報告書を作成し,報告書の内容について雇用主及び被雇用者の同意を求め,かつ--

(a) 使用者と被雇用者の双方が報告書の内容に同意した場合、報告書を裁判所または労資審裁処に提出する。

(b) 使用者または被雇用者が報告書の内容に同意しない場合は、その旨および報告書を裁判所または労資審裁処に提出することができない旨を通知する。(2018年に第21号第4条で追加)

(4) 復職命令とは、雇用主があらゆる点において、従業員が解雇されなかったかのように、または雇用契約の条件が変更されなかったかのように、従